Diverse Image Annotation

Diverse Image Annotation

​Baoyuan Wu, Fan Jia, Wei Liu, Bernard Ghanem, 
"Diverse Image Annotation", 
Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2017)​
Baoyuan Wu, Fan Jia, Wei Liu, Bernard Ghanem
diverse, image annotation
2017
​In this work, we study a new image annotation task called diverse image annotation (DIA). Its goal is to describe an image using a limited number of tags, whereby the retrieved tags need to cover as much useful information about the image as possible. As compared to the conventional image annotation task, DIA requires the tags to be not only representative of the image but also diverse from each other, so as to reduce redundancy. To this end, we treat DIA as a subset selection problem, based on the conditional determinantal point process (DPP) model, which encodes representation and diversity jointly. We further explore semantic hierarchy and synonyms among candidate tags to define weighted semantic paths. It is encouraged that two tags with the same semantic path are not retrieved simultaneously for the same image. This restriction is embedded into the algorithm used to sample from the learned conditional DPP model. Interestingly, we find that conventional metrics for image annotation (e.g., precision, recall, and F 1 score) only consider an overall representative capacity of all the retrieved tags, while ignoring their diversity. Thus, we propose new semantic metrics based on our proposed weighted semantic paths. An extensive subject study verifies that the proposed metrics are much more consistent with human evaluation than conventional annotation metrics. Experiments on two benchmark datasets show that the proposed method produces more representative and diverse tags, compared with existing methods.